Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Civil Engineering


The introduction of the "skyscraper" only a few years ago has revolutionized many old ideas as regards foundations, and hand in hand with the skyscraper came the "earthscraper" with its so termed "web-footed" engineer because his business is in mud and quicksand below water level. These tall buildings require much permanent machinery and much room is taken up, which of course, cannot be spared either from the ground floor or basement under the street florr, so that not only have sub-basements been put in but also cellars, sub-cellars under them giving as many as four floors below the street level, thus causing the words "earthscraper" to be coined.