Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts


International Relations

First Advisor

Chaim Kaufmann

Second Advisor

Mary Anne Madeira

Third Advisor

Arman Grigoryan


Recently, academic discourse surrounding gender equality has included in it a discussion of how equity relates to political violence. With the recent upswing in political violence worldwide, it is necessary to continue to investigate the relationship between these two variables in order to better understand how to combat this trend. This study will add to the existing research on this topic by looking more specifically at the role women’s economic empowerment may play in reducing intrastate political violence. Statistical studies have found a negative relationship between gender equality, measured in economic terms, and intrastate political violence. By conducting an in-depth examination of the evolution of Basque political violence in Spain and the changing role of women in Spanish society this study attempts to more clearly determine the causal linkage between the two. The results suggest that while women’s economic empowerment, and gender equality more broadly, may not directly influence political violence via the reduction of material grievances, it is necessary for the development of a more liberal and inclusive democratic society that discourages the use of violence.