Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy


Counseling Psychology

First Adviser

Liang, Christopher T.


Masculinity is defined as “cultural belief systems about masculinity and male gender, rooted in the structural relationships between the two sexes” (Pleck, 1995, p. 19). Contemporary Chinese masculinities are influenced by Taoism that supports androgynous gender roles, Confucianism that promotes male dominance and familial responsibilities, wen masculinities that stress men’s societal responsibilities, and the socio-cultural changes taking place in China since the 19th century (Hirschman & Teerawichichainan, 2003). The current studies describe the development and validation of the Contemporary Chinese Masculinity Inventory (CCMI). In study one, five factors emerged in Exploratory Factor Analysis with 338 Chines men. The factors are: Responsible and Upright, Big-Hearted, Egalitarian, Leadership, and Dominance In study two, the five-factor structure was confirmed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (χ2 (395, N = 228) = 652.57, p < .001, RMSEA = .054, SRMR = .075, CFI = .87.) with another 228 Chinese men. In study three, the CCMI demonstrated acceptable one-month test-retest reliability with 38 Chinese men. In addition, the CCMI demonstrated strong criterion-related validity and convergent-related validity through significant correlations with scores on measures of depression, aggression, generosity, male dominance, and the subscales of CCMI. Limitations and contributions of the current studies were discussed.