Date

2017

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree

Doctor of Philosophy

Department

Mechanical Engineering

First Adviser

Schuster, Eugenio

Abstract

The tokamak is currently the most promising device for realizing commercially-viable fusion energy production. The device uses magnetic fields to confine a circulating ring of hydrogen in the plasma state, i.e. a cloud of hydrogen ions and electrons. When sufficiently heated the hydrogen ions can overcome the electrostatic forces and fuse together, providing an overwhelmingly abundant energy source. However, stable, high-performance operation of a tokamak requires several plasma control problems to be handled simultaneously. Moreover, the complex physics which governs the tokamak plasma evolution must be studied and understood to make correct choices in controller design. In this thesis, two key control issues are studied intensely, namely the optimization and control of the plasma current profile and control of the plasma rotation (or flow).In order to maximize performance, it is preferable that tokamaks achieve advanced scenarios (AT) characterized by good plasma confinement, improved magnetohydrodynamic stability, and a largely non-inductively driven plasma current. A key element to the development of AT scenarios is the optimization of the spatial distribution of the current profile. Also, research has shown that the plasma rotation can stabilize the tokamak plasma against degradations in the desired MHD equilibrium.In this thesis, new model-based control approaches for the current profile and rotation profile are developed to allow experimental exploration of advanced tokamak scenarios. Methods for separate control of both the current profile and rotation are developed. The advanced model-based control methods presented in this thesis have contributed to theory of tokamak profile control and in some cases they have been successfully validated experimentally in the DIII-D tokamak.

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