Date

2017

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree

Doctor of Philosophy

Department

Materials Science and Engineering

First Adviser

Jain, Himanshu

Abstract

In the field of bioactive glasses for hard tissue regeneration, the bioactivity of a material is measured by its ability to induce the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA), Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, under physiological conditions. Due to its close chemical crystallographic resemblance to natural bones, the newly formed HA layer has been shown to be critical for the biological interaction and bonding between the surfaces of bioactive glasses and osteoblast (bone) cells. Since the formation mechanism of HA is dependent on the dissolution behavior of the bioactive glass substrate, the characteristics of HA layer are dominated by the glass composition and structure. By introducing nanoporosity into glass structure, the dissolution rate and HA growth rate on nanoporous sol-gel-derived glasses are drastically enhanced compared to that of non-porous melt-quench glasses with the same composition. While enhanced HA growth on nanoporous glass, compared to non-porous glass, was hypothesized to be associated with greater specific surface area (SSA), other studies argued that growth rate of HA layer on nanoporous glass is dominated by nanopore size distribution, and minimally affected by the bulk SSA of the underlying glass. In order to decouple the influence of nanopore size and SSA on HA formation, we have successfully fabricated homogeneous 70S30C bioactive glass monoliths with different nanopore sizes, yet similar SSA via sol-gel process. After 3-day PBS incubation of 70S30C nanoporous glass monoliths, the presence of hydroxyapatite and Type-B carbonated hydroxyapatite (HA/B-CHA) was confirmed by XPS and FTIR. Here, we report the influence of nanopore size on HA/CHA formation pathway, growth rate, and its microstructure. Due to pore-size limited diffusion of PO43-, two HA/CHA formation pathways were observed: HA/CHA surface deposition and/or HA/CHA incorporation into nanopores. HA/CHA growth rate on the surface of a nanoporous glass monolith is dominated by the pore-size limited transport of Ca2+ ions dissolved from nanoporous glass substrates. Furthermore, with rising overall growth rate controlled by nanopore size, HA/CHA microstructures evolved from needle-like, plate-like, and flower-like, respectively. Furthermore, the levels of initial cell attachment and protein adsorption on HA/CHA microstructures formed on different nanopore sizes were investigated. The initial cell attachment was quantified by measuring the density and average size of attached MC3T3-E1 cells after 2-hour seeding period. The amounts and conformation of adsorbed proteins after 2-hour incubation with HA/CHA were characterized by Western blot and FTIR, respectively. It was shown that the amounts of protein adsorption on various HA/CHA microstructures do not correlate with the initial MC3T3-E1 attachment, while the β-sheet/α-helix ratios in Amide I of bovine albumin serum (BSA) adsorbed on HA/CHA microstructures do correlate to the level of initial cell attachment. This result suggests that the β-sheet structure in BSA interacts with and activates the RGD sequence of adhesion proteins, such as fibronectin, upon adsorption, thus significantly enhancing the initial attachment of MC3T3-E1 cells. These findings provide new insights that can lead to a more detailed fundamental understanding of protein-surface and protein-protein interactions, which are crucial for the further development of bioactive material.

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