Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy


Counseling Psychology

First Adviser

Inman, Arpana G.

Other advisers/committee members

Mehr, Kristin; Hojnoski, Robin; Dever, Bridget


The supervisory working alliance is an important outcome for supervision success(Ladany, Ellis, & Friedlander, 1999), and it has been proposed that the alliance isinfluenced by interpersonal, affective, and cultural supervisee characteristics (Bennett,Mohr, Deal, & Hwang, 2013; Bhat & Davis, 2007; Dickson, Moberly, Marshall, & Reilly, 2011). To that effect, the aim of the present study was to examine a proposed model of relationships between trainee ratings of the supervisory working alliance,trainee willingness to disclose in supervision, supervisee shame-proneness, andinterdependent self-construal using structural equation modeling. A sample of 201counselors-in- training participated in the study, and results suggested that the targetmodel exhibited good fit to the data. An alternate model of relationships was alsoexamined and similarly evidenced good fit to the data but did not significantly improvemodel fit. The following hypothesized relationships were supported: 1) higherinterdependent self-construal predicted greater shame-proneness for trainees and 2)greater willingness to disclose in supervision predicted higher ratings of the supervisoryworking alliance. However, shame-proneness was not a significant predictor of traineedisclosure or of the supervisory working alliance, and trainee willingness to disclose wasnot found to mediate the relationship between shame-proneness and the supervisoryworking alliance. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed.