Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy


Counseling Psychology

First Adviser

Caskie, Grace I. L.

Other advisers/committee members

Hojnoski, Robin L.; Woodhouse, Susan; Klein, Eric


Potentially traumatic events (PTEs), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms can significantly impair functioning (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). Understanding the relationships between PTEs, PTSD symptoms, and AUD symptoms and how these relationships may differ by gender among young adults, in particular, can be informative for providing multiculturally-sensitive early intervention efforts. Thus, the aim of the current study was to build upon existing research by being one of the first studies to examine the relationships between PTEs, PTSD symptoms, and AUD symptoms and to investigate whether gender moderates these relationships. The study utilized data from the Drug Use Trajectories: Ethnic/Racial Comparisons 1998-2002 (Turner, 2011). Data for PTEs, PTSD symptoms, and AUD symptoms at two waves were obtained from the Michigan Composite International Diagnostic Interview, DSM-IV version (Johnson, Turner, & Iwata, 2003) and selected modules from the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule (e.g., Robins, Helzer, Croughan, & Ratcliff, 1981). Path analysis was conducted to examine eight research hypotheses exploring the relationships between the aforementioned variables and gender as moderator. Eight out of the twelve paths were found to be statistically significant, and of the eight significant paths, seven confirmed hypotheses. With regards to gender, three out of the twelve paths were moderated by gender, which confirmed one of the three related hypotheses. Results provide important implications for research and practice.