Document Type



Doctor of Education


Educational Leadership

First Adviser

Sperandio, Jill I.

Other advisers/committee members

Hammond, Thomas; White, George P.; Lyso, Harlan


The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between teachers' sense of efficacy and a change initiative that challenged teachers' current classroom practice. This study focused on 1:1 technology implementations in international schools from the East Asia Regional Council of Overseas Schools (EARCOS). The study also explored the relationship between teachers' sense of efficacy and their perceptions of the effectiveness of certain professional development formats. Teacher efficacy was defined using Tschannen-Moran and Woolfolk Hoy's (1998) integrated model, which included teachers' ability to control the outcomes and their self-perceived competency to accomplish the desired outcomes. Data was collected from 234 participants in 14 EARCOS schools located in China, Japan, and South Korea. Participants were currently teaching at least one class of students in grades 6-12 with 1:1 technology access. The Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale was used to measure teacher efficacy in classroom management, instructional strategies, and student engagement. The data analysis was separated into two strands. The first strand considered the relationship between teacher efficacy and experience, and the second evaluated teacher efficacy in relation to the perceived effectiveness of professional development formats. In regard to experience, multiple regression analysis evaluated significant relationships between teacher efficacy and the independent variables of 1:1 technology classroom teaching experience, age, general classroom teaching experience, gender, grade level(s) taught, passport nationality, subject(s) taught, and the type of 1:1 technology device in the classroom. In regard to professional development, multiple regression analysis and a one-way ANOVA was used to evaluate relationships between teacher efficacy and the perceived effectiveness ratings of the identified professional development formats. The findings indicated that more experienced teachers demonstrated stronger teacher efficacy in instructional strategies and student engagement during a 1:1 technology implementation. The findings also showed that women had stronger efficacy in classroom management and student engagement than men. The multiple regression analysis found a strong significance between the perceived effectiveness of hands on workshops and teacher efficacy. The one-way ANOVA found significant relationships with 5 of the 8 professional development formats. The study also noted that many professional development formats were absent from teachers' experience.