Date

2017

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree

Doctor of Philosophy

Department

Materials Science and Engineering

First Adviser

Misiolek, Wojciech Z.

Other advisers/committee members

Watanabe, Masashi; Vinci, Richard; Pawlikowski, Gregory; Chamanfar, Ahmad

Abstract

Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technology that utilizes a high-power laser to melt metal powder and form a part layer-by-layer. Over the last 25 years, the technology has progressed from prototyping polymer parts to full scale production of metal component. SLM offers several advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques; however, the current alloy systems that are researched and utilized for SLM do not address applications requiring high electrical and thermal conductivity. This work presents a characterization of the microstructural evolution and mechanical property development of two copper alloys fabricated via SLM and post-process heat treated to address this gap in knowledge. Tensile testing, conductivity measurement, and detailed microstructural characterization was carried out on samples in the as-printed and heat treated conditions.A single phase solid solution strengthened binary alloy, Cu-4.3Sn, was the first alloy studied. Components were selectively laser melted from pre-alloyed Cu-4.3Sn powder and heat treated at 873 K (600 °C) and 1173 K (900 °C) for 1 hour. As-printed samples were around 97 percent dense with a yield strength of 274 MPa, an electrical conductivity of 24.1 %IACS, and an elongation of 5.6%. Heat treatment resulted in lower yield strength with significant increases in ductility due to recrystallization and a decrease in dislocation density. Tensile sample geometry and surface finish also showed a significant effect on measured yield strength but a negligible change in measured ductility. Microstructural characterization indicated that grains primarily grow epitaxially with a sub-micron cellular solidification sub-structure. Nanometer scale tin dioxide particles identified via XRD were found throughout the structure in the tin-rich intercellular regions.The second alloy studied was a high-performance precipitation hardening Cu-Ni-Si alloy, C70250. Pre-alloyed powder was selectively laser melted to produce components around 98 percent dense with high mechanical strength and electrical conductivity. Aging heat treatments were carried out at 723 K (450 °C) directly on as-printed samples up to 128 hours. A peak yield strength of around 590 MPa could be attained with an electrical conductivity of 34.2 %IACS after 8 hours of aging. Conductivity continues to increase with further aging while the peak strength appears to be less sensitive to aging time exhibiting a broad range of time where near-peak properties exist. Nanometer-scale silicon-rich oxide particles exist throughout the material and persist during aging. Deformation twinning is observed in the peak age condition after tensile testing and several strengthening mechanisms appear to be active to varying degrees throughout aging, which accounts for the broad range of aging time where nearly the peak mechanical properties exist. The findings of this research are integral to understanding SLM copper alloys and serve as a foundation for future development of new copper alloys tailored to the SLM process.

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